الموضوع: Ramadan
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قديم 19/08/2009, 11:56 PM
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رمضان Ramadan

رمضان Ramadan

(رمضان:Ramadan (Arabic
‎also written Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan)
Ramdan, Ramadaan) is an Islamic religious observance that takes place
during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; the month in which the
Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. In the western
calendar, the dates of Ramadan vary, moving forward about ten days each
year. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims
refrain from eating, drinking, sexual conduct, smoking, and indulging in
anything that is in excess or ill-natured; from dawn until sunset ]
.Fasting is meant to teach the Muslim patience, modesty and spirituality
Ramadan is a time to fast for the sake of Allah, and to offer more
prayer than usual. Muslims also believed through good actions, they get
,rewarded twice as much as they normally can achieve. During Ramadan
Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance and help in
refraining from everyday evils, and try to purify themselves through
.self-restraint and good deeds

أصل رمضان Origins of Ramadan

The name "Ramadama" had been the name of the ninth month in the Arab
world long before the arrival of Islam; the word itself derived from an
Arabic root rmd, as in words like "ramida" or "ar-ramad" denoting
,intense heat], scorched ground and shortness of rations. In the Qu'ran
God proclaims that "fasting has been written down (as obligatory) upon
,you, as it was upon those before you". According to the earliest hadith
[.this refers to the Jewish practice of fasting on Yom Kippur

Laylat al-Qadr, considered the most holy night of the year, is the night
[.'in which the Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad, the "Night of the Power
Muslims believe it to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the
,last 10 days of Ramadan, either the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th
27th or 29th (in Sunni thought) or the 19th, 21st or 23rd (in Shi'a
thought). Ramadan ends with Eid ul-Fitr, with much celebration and
feasts. During the month following Ramaḍān, called Shawwal, Muslims
are encouraged to fast for a further six days, known as as-Sitta
al-Bīd, or "the white six." When fasting is over, Muslims go to
Mosques in new clothes to pray the first Eid prayer. They give out
presents to the young ones and greet their friends and families. They
.then thank God for what he has given them

الممارسات خلال شهر رمضان Practices during Ramadan
Fasting الصيام

The most prominent event of this month is fasting. Every day during the
month of Ramadan, Muslims around the world get up before dawn to eat
Sahur, the pre-dawn meal, then they perform the fajr prayer. They have to
stop eating and drinking before the call for prayer starts until the
fourth prayer of the day, Maghrib. Muslims may continue to eat and drink
after the sun has set until the next morning's fajr prayer call. Then the
.process starts all over

Ramadān is a time of reflecting and worshiping God. Muslims are expected
to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam and to avoid
obscene and irreligious sights and sounds. Sexual thoughts and activities
during fasting hours are also forbidden. Purity of both
thought and action is important. The fast is intended to be an exacting
act of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised awareness of
.closeness to God

The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly
activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from
[,harm. It also allows Muslims to practice self-discipline, self-control
sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging
actions of generosity and charity. However, A certain level of
[.self-control can be lost by those who suffer from eating disorders

The elderly, the chronically ill, and the mentally ill are exempt from
fasting, although the first two groups must endeavor to feed the poor in
place of their missed fasting. Also exempt are pregnant women, women
during the period of their menstruation, and women nursing their
newborns. A difference of opinion exists among Islamic scholars as to
,whether this last group must make up the days they miss at a later date
or feed poor people as a recompense for days missed.] While fasting is
not considered compulsory in childhood, many children endeavor to
,complete as many fasts as possible as practice for later life. Lastly
those traveling are exempt, but must make up the days they miss.[Qur'an
2:184] More specifically, Twelver Shī‘ah define those who travel more
than 14 miles in a day as exempt.]. The elderly or those who suffer from
a disability or disease and have no prospect of getting better in the
future can pay the cost of Eftar for a person who cannot afford it, or
else they can host him in their house and have him eat with them after
.sunset as a way of repaying for the days they could not fast

A person who is observing Ramadan might break the fast accidentally, due
to having forgotten it. In such an instance, one should spit out the food
being eaten or cease the forbidden activity, immediately upon remembering
.the fast

When Ramadan came to overshadow Ashura in importance, it took on some
characteristics of the latter. According to the well-known hadith, the
person who observes Ramadan properly will have all their past sins
forgiven. According to another, "When Ramadan arrives, Heaven's gates are
opened, Hell's gates are closed, and the demons are chained up" and who
[.ever passes away will enter paradise

There are exceptions in certain Muslim communities that deny practicing
.fasting in Ramadān such as Alevi people in Turkey

الصلاة وقراءة القرأن Prayer and reading of the Qur'an

Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Istanbul in Ramadan (the writing with lights
(called mahya

.In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Qur'an
Some Muslims perform the recitation of the entire Qur'an by means of
special prayers, called Tarawih, which are held in the mosques every
night of the month, during which a whole section of the Qur'an (juz,
which is 1/30 of the Qur'an) is recited. Therefore the entire Qur'an
.would be completed at the end of the month

Ramadān is also a time when Muslims are to slow down from worldly
affairs and focus on self-reformation, spiritual cleansing and
enlightenment, establishing a link between themselves and God through
.prayer, supplication, charity, good deeds, kindness and helping others
Since it is a festival of giving and sharing, Muslims prepare special
foods and buy gifts for their family and friends and for giving to the
,poor and needy who cannot afford it; this can involve buying new clothes
shoes and other items of need. There is also a social aspect involved the
preparing of special foods and inviting people for the Iftar meal (the
.(meal to open the fast

Fanoos Ramadan, Cairo

,In many Muslim and non Muslim countries with large Muslim populations
markets close down in the evening to enable people to perform prayers and
consume the Iftar meal – these markets then re-open and stay open for a
good part of the night. Muslims can be seen shopping, eating, spending
time with their friends and family during the evening hours. In some
Muslim countries, failing to fast or openly flaunting such behavior
during Ramadan is considered a crime and is prosecuted as such. For
instance, in Algeria, in October 2008 the court of Biskra condemned six
.[.people to 4 years in prison and heavy fines

عيد الفطر Eid ul-Fitr

Eid Ul-Fitr
Eid Ul-Fitr meal, Malaysia

(عيد الفطر:‎ The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic
marks the end of the fasting period of Ramadan and the first day of the
following month, after another new moon has been sighted. The Eid falls
after 29 or 30 days of fasting, as per the lunar sighting. Eid ul-Fitr
.means the Festival of Breaking the Fast; a special celebration is made
Food is donated to the poor (‘Zakat al-Fitr’), everyone puts on their
best, usually new, clothes, and communal prayers are held in the early
morning, followed by feasting and visiting relatives and friends. The
prayer is two rakaahs only, and it is optional (Wajib)prayer as opposed
.to the compulsory five daily prayers

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